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Colorectal cancer and smoking

Cancer—a definition. Term represents a group of more than neoplastic diseases that involve all body organs. One or more cells lose their normal growth controlling mechanism and continue to grow uncontrolled. They tend to invade surrounding tissue and to metastasize to distant body sites.

Second leading cause of death in United States after heart disease. Ranks fourth for males and first for females as cause of death; second after accidents as cause of death for children.

Am avut un cancer la plămâni și mi-am pierdut vocea. Airtight doesn't apply when signed under duress, which is exactly what dying of lung cancer and not being able to afford a doctor is.

Greatest increase seen in colorectal cancer and smoking cancer—consistent with smoking patterns. Incidence rate.

Colorectal cancer and smoking,

It is predicted that the incidence of cancer in the United States could double by the middle of the century, due to growth and aging of population. Leading causes of cancer death are lungs, prostate, and colorectal for colorectal cancer and smoking lungs, breast, and colorectal for females.

Most common site of cancer for a female is the cervix. Steps in controlling cancer: Educate the public and professional people about cancer. Encourage methods of primary prevention. Carcinogens: agents known to increase susceptibility to cancer. Chemical carcinogens: asbestos, benzene, vinyl chloride, by-products of tobacco, arsenic, cadmium, nickel, radiation, and mustard gas.

Iatrogenic chemical agents: diethylstilbestrol DES ; chemotherapy; colorectal cancer and smoking treatment; immunosuppressive agents, radioisotopes, cytotoxic drugs. Radiation carcinogens: x-rays; sunlight ultraviolet light ; nuclear radiation. Viral factors: herpes simplex; Epstein—Barr; hepatitis B, and retroviruses. Genetic factors: hereditary or familial tendencies.

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Demographic and geographic factors. Dietary factors: obesity; high-fat diet; diets low in fiber; diets high in smoked or salted foods; preservatives and food additives; alcohol.

Psychological factors: stress. Optimal dietary patterns and lifestyle changes.

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Increase total fiber in diet—decreases risk of colon cancer. Increase cruciferous vegetables cabbage, broccoli, carrots, Brussels sprouts. Increase vitamin A—reduced incidence of larynx, esophagus, and lung cancers.

colorectal cancer and smoking

Increase vitamin C—aids tumor encapsulation and promotes longer survival time. Increase vitamin E—inhibits growth of brain tumors, melanomas, and leukemias. Decrease alcohol consumption.

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Avoid salt—cured, smoked, or nitrate-cured foods. Minimize exposure to carcinogens. Avoid oral tobacco—increases incidence of oral cancers. Avoid exposure to asbestos fibers and constant environmental dust. Avoid exposure to chemicals. Avoid radiation exposure and excessive exposure to sunlight.

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Obtain adequate rest and exercise to decrease stress. Chronic stress associated with decreased immune system functioning.

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Strong immune system responsible for destruction of developing malignant cells. Participate in a regular exercise program. Get adequate rest 6—8 hours per night.

Approximately one-quarter of these cancers occur in countries with low socio-economic levels where food deficiencies are implicated in etiology by the imbalance between physical activity and energy intake, while high sugar and fat content are the main factors incriminated in developed countries where a third of the most common cancers occur. The relationship between diet and cancer risk is complex.

Have a physical exam on a regular basis, including recommended diagnostic tests. Risk assessment see Identified Causes and Risk Factors, p. Health history and physical assessment.

Screening methods. Mammography, Pap test, prostate exam, prostate- specific antigen PSA blood test, etc.

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Self-care practices: breast self-examination BSE done every month on a regular time schedule; testicular self-examination TSE done every month; skin inspection. Colonoscopy for males and females 50 years and older. Fecal occult blood test colorectal cancer and smoking males and females 40 years and older.

Characteristics A. Benign neoplasms: usually encapsulated, remain localized, and are slow growing. Malignant neoplasms: not encapsulated, will metastasize and grow, and exert negative effects on host.

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Categories of malignant neoplasms. Carcinomas—grown from epithelial cells; usually solid tumors skin, stomach, colon, breast, rectal. Sarcomas—arise from muscle, bone, fat, or connective tissue—may be solid. Lymphomas—arise from lymphoid tissue infection-fighting organs.

  • Revista Romana de Medicina de Laborator Revista Societatii de Medicina Interna Colorectal cancer and smoking Most Downloaded Articles We also genotyped colorectal cancer and smoking and 62 males, who formed the control group.
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Leukemias and myelomas—grow from bloodforming organs. Mechanisms of metastases.

Role of nutrition in cancer

Transport of cancer cells occurs through the lymph system and either the cells reside in lymph nodes or pass between venous and lymphatic circulation. Tumors that begin in areas of the body that have colorectal cancer and smoking lymph circulation are at high risk for metastasis breast tissue.

The speed of metastasis is directly related to the vascularity of the tumor.